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Project Outline

Horizontal Work Packages

The horizontal work packages serve to integrate the results from the vertical work packages to a holistic picture.

A project of the size of an IP requires stringent horizontal planning, monitoring and assessment to exploit project resources in an optimum way. The horizontal WPs also have an important service function to make the wide spectrum of knowledge aware and available to all WP-teams, to solve problems and clarify issues of common project interests centrally and organize internal and external support for problem solving.

It is the horizontal platform where the integration takes place and where results will be also put into context of relevant social and policy (EC) conditions and communities.

Leader D´Appolonia, Italy

This WP is split into two Sub-WPs, one dealing with the financial and administrative co-ordination (Leader D’Appolonia, Italy) whereas the other covers the scientific-technical co-ordination (Leader ISSUS/TUHH Germany supported by TL&A and ICES, France) including quality assurance covering the whole research and development process from specification of objectives via the work processes till the deliverables and its relevance to port operations.

Leader ISSUS/TUHH, Germany

Integration is a core issue of EFFORTS to allocate R&D work in most appropriate way to the large pattern of port operations and to exploit synergies between work packages. Project results wherever possible shall cause a lever effect i.e. the impacts from all achievements together shall exceed individual impacts. The formal platform for integration is provided by WP 3.1 determining all relevant port processes and its coherence which also allows mapping out critical relationships or dependencies between RTD issues, practical applications/requirements and normative/regulative ones. This “port process map” further allows identifying the needs, the opportunities and the conditions to achieve a higher degree of interoperability and interconnectivity between operational processes based on technological innovations.

Leader Dublin Port Company, Ireland

The objective of this work package will be to ensure that we research how best to invest in the development of our greatest resource, our people.

The ultimate objective will be to develop a “skills and competency ports passport” for those who work in European Ports and to set a benchmark for integrated training and development programs to ensure greater operational cohesion, leading to better levels of business knowledge enhancing inter-change of staff and helping to establish a culture that will align business strategy with the human development strategy. This includes the development of a strategy to provide and exploit training facilities on European level in order to achieve both, a high level staff qualification and cost savings in training equipment such as simulators.

Leader ICES, France

This WP aggregates all activities related to dissemination, exploitation and protection of knowledge.

Exploitation activities will aim to define guidelines for further research and business developments and for implementation. The EFFORTS Exploitation Plan will be built addressing in detail the market, and managerial aspects of exploitation.

This WP will also work to ensure protection (acquisition whenever possible) and management of knowledge. A knowledge data base will be settled and upgraded on the basis of the results acquired during the project.

Dissemination activities will work to promote and inform about the developed tools, software and research results in a responsive and proactive way, using a web portal, newsletters, DVD ROM, and conferences. The demonstration ports will be the locations of the workshops and will have an integrative role in their organisation.

Sub-Project Objectives

The Sub-Project “Navigation in Ports” aims at the improvement of safety and efficiency of navigation in ports considering decreasing manoeuvring space (vessel size in relation to fairways and basins) and increasing traffic. Safety is defined by risk of damage to vessels and infrastructure, efficiency is defined by turn around speed in ports.

This SP covers all navigational issues to be enhanced by techniques and technologies. Increase of vessel sizes and requirements for minimum dredging call for higher accuracy and reliability of navigation in fairways and ports not being met by equipment according to SOLAS Carriage Requirements.

Sub-Project Structure

In order to achieve the stated objectives and scopes, the Sub-Project is structured in three different Work-Packages:

WP1.1: Tug Assistance

WP1.2: Precise Navigation and Manoeuvring in Ports

WP1.3: Port ECDIS

The Subproject Navigation in Ports is lead by the Dublin Port Company (DPC).

Leader Force

The result of the WP will be a top class tug simulator, which can be used by ports and tug operators to train pilots and tug masters in efficient and safe use of new tugs, for planning of tug use in ports and at terminals, and for decision-making concerning the introduction of new tug types and sizes. Experience so far indicates that training may be accelerated significantly. As an example, Svitzer A/S has stated that the training period for a new mate may be reduced by half by introducing extensive training in the tug simulator, thereby reducing the time needed onboard.

WP 1.1 partners are FORCE (leader), IST, APL, SW, L&R, HPA.

Leader Marimatech

Based on preparatory work, also within the DG Infosoc project IPPA, and as part of a tested set up on the river Elbe (approach to Hamburg), current portable pilot units (PPU) will be evaluated and selectively improved covering functionalities, weight, flexibility to become adapted to individual regional needs. The scope of potential input data will be investigated and validated including environmental and tidal information but also track polygons including time tags from a VTS as well as adaptation of the PPU solution for tug operations.

WP 1.2 partners are MARIMATECH (leader), ISSUS/TUHH, HPA, Tredit, PAH, ThPA, DPC, L&R, FORCE.

Leader Hamburg Port Authority

These days’ masters and pilots approaching a seaport usually use an Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) based on IHO standards to obtain the required geographic, hydrographic and bathymetric information they need. The chart requirements for manoeuvring big ships in narrow fairways (harbour access channels) and harbours and for the seabed and port maintenance go far beyond the current ECDIS standard with respect to accuracy, topicality, chart objects and attributes (“object catalogue”), 3-D possibilities, designed reference model and call for a specific “harbour ECDIS”.

On base of ECDIS technology (GIS) it will be possible to link, combine or overlay other information to improve the interoperability of harbour related tasks.

The utilisation of the port ECDIS can be grouped into two: for safe and efficient navigation and for the maintenance work of the port authorities. With the still increasing dimensions of vessels and the cumulating traffic the harbours increasingly operate at the border of their capacity. Under this circumstance can the safety of navigation and a proper traffic management and berth organisation only be guaranteed if accurate and up-to-date geographic and bathymetric data of high-resolution are available providing all necessary information, in some cases in real-time (e.g. for dredging purposes).

Almost all port processes from navigation to container stowage on the terminal have a geographical relevance. Automation of port processes, which means to replace human beings having an excellent orientation and heuristics ability, requires high accurate positioning features. Significant improvement of port productivity and at the same time reliability is only possible by a high potential GIS. The WP Port ECDIS therefore is a basic WP for any enhancement of port services and operations.

WP 1.3 partners are HPA (leader), ISSUS/TUHH, Caris.

Sub-Project Objectives

SP2 aims at the formulation and development of a comprehensive framework for integration of ports and environment. SP2 will conceive pathways for integrated management of environmental issues in European ports and for a global European standard to deal with environmental protection in ports on a large level, that is, integrating different environmental and operational issues in ports.

During the last years European ports have been consolidating a strong involvement in environmental protection and friendliness (e.g. ECOPORT LIFE project). Also, the EU environmental regulation framework related to ports is certainly impressive. Yet, in spite of that, much remains to be done. SP2 aims at further improving the state of the art, so as to provide for viable and integrated solutions regarding the amelioration of port environment and the overall strengthening of port status within local communities.

During the verification phase, needs of various different ports have been scrutinized so as to identify deficiencies and define potential ways of improvement.

It appeared clearly that the protection of environment is of their main priorities. Ports want to be aware and manage the environmental risks associated to their operations. Ports wants to be proactive as far as environment is concerned, and for their day-to-day operations or in the event of serious toxic incidents, to be able to show their strong involvement to target an efficient and sustainable management. Even though Port Authorities are not decision makers in private companies’ policy, they often contribute to the Port facilities development, they facilitate the implementation on new Port activities and hence, they have a share in the whole environmental protection with the other Port actors as handling companies, ship owners, pilots and tug companies, etc.

Then, port competitiveness has to be optimised in a broader extent than in terms of cost-effectiveness and productivity. The improvement of port operations must be made in a sustainable way. Nowadays, development of ports mandatory requires to address environmental issues. In this context, research activities are of prime importance to permit the development of knowledge and technological innovation which will make it possible for ports to address such issues in the future which cannot be managed today taking into account existing procedures, techniques or technologies.

State of the art has been completed aiming at evaluating the technological market and ports best practices, so as to validate the level of innovation of the planned solutions. “Products” have so been planned to be designed, developed, tested and for certain demonstrated during the EFFORTS SP2. Their potential for integration has been validated in first approach, such as their capacity to be transferred to other ports situations.

EFFORTS SP2 will develop new integrated approaches and solutions for the management of environmental issues in ports, with direct impacts on energy management, air and water pollutions, and noise annoyance. Beneficiaries will be the ports communities actors (authorities, handling operators working in the ports), surrounding inhabitants, fauna and flora.

Sub-Project Structure

In order to achieve the stated objectives and scopes, the Sub-Project is structured in four different Work-Packages:

WP 2.1: Clean Energy Management

WP 2.2: Water Quality

WP 2.3: Port Air Quality

WP 2.4: Noise Annoyance of Ports

The Subproject Port and Environment is lead by the Port of Le Havre (PAH).

Leader Areva TA

More and more in Europe, Ports authorities focus their activities on infrastructure development, ship reception, regulation controls, promotion and land management. Ports are not “energy producers”, but as land planner have the possibility to integrate energy producers in their domain of management.

As a corollary mission, they are responsible for improving port activities meanwhile minimizing their impacts on inhabitants, fauna and flora. Such as other companies, Ports have also now to deal with the greenhouse effect. Energy has to be better used, to decrease the thermal balance of the planet. Besides, due to their locations, Ports have a high primary energy potential: on the waterfront, with the possibility to install windmills; in estuaries or on rivers, with the possibility to use current power; hosting activities (and/or closed to industrial or human activities) generating wastes. Moreover, according to EC Directive 2000/59, on port reception facilities for ship-generated waste and cargo residues, “Member States shall ensure the availability of ports reception facilities adequate to meet the needs of the ships normally using the port”.

Port activities are also high energy consumers. The global explosion of energy prices increases the associated stakes. And ports energy consumption could increase in the coming years if electricity is provided to ships at berth. Furthermore ports sometimes offer a service to other port actors by providing electricity thanks to their local network.

Therefore, energy management is a specific issue of prime importance in ports.

In parallel, the concepts for energy production, transport and transformation are today moving. The classical concept of production and distribution leads to a low efficiency from the raw material to the end-user and to a high environmental impact. In order to improve the situation two ways of development are considered (and combined): distributing energy production and integrating Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Examples of utilisation of RES and clean energy can be identified in some large European ports (Rotterdam, Hamburg…), but these technologies are not so spread at EU level, mainly as a result of their specificity and lack of integration. More globally, a mix energy approach is missing.

Ports therefore need solutions to help them build and explain to the wide community of concerned actors their development policy and energy strategy, considering RES and energy recovery from waste for the development of a cost-effective, environmentally-friend and “secured” integrated concept of distributed production of energy.

WP2.1 aims to analyse and propose solutions for management of energy issues in European ports at short, medium and long terms. It concerns the optimisation of planning and management of energy consumption and supply based on:

  • The utilisation of clean and RES (solar, wind, sea…), as much as possible,
  • Wastes energy recovery,
  • In situ possibilities (weather, geographical, legal constraints).

Main deliverables of this WP are:

  • A model of the port energy consumption and associated cost, function of time and situation (e.g. traffic),
  • A mapping tool allowing to present the level of energy consumption and costs (obtained from the model) per type of port operation and geographical areas,
  • A help to decision tool dedicated to simulate and validate virtually new energetic exploitation plans / scenarios in ports, according to their impact on environment, safety, security and efficiency.

WP2.1 partners are AREVA TA (leader), CORYSS TESS, TLA, VTT, CETMEF and ports of Le Havre and Dublin.

Leader University of Caen

WP2.2 addresses two issues of water quality in ports: “Ballast waters pollutions during ships reception” and “Aluminium pollution related to the protection of ports infrastructures/quay”.

Efficient and clean management of ballast waters is an important issue for ports. Ports are currently not assessing the impact from ballast water but need to ensure that discharge of ballast water from ships does not effect the port, river and coastal biosphere so they must be aware of the current status and impact of different harmful aquatic organisms in ballast water and eliminate or at least reduce negative consequences. In case of economic, health or ecologic disaster, the ports liability (and not only of ship owners) could be at stake. By de-ballasting in ports or close proximity, ships spread various unwanted living species which may proliferate, leading to local economic disasters and human health blows, even casualties (e.g. epidemic of Vibrio cholerae on South American coasts in 1991…). At EU level, significant results have already been obtained through the MARTOB program, but currently, there are only few treatments which complies with the IMO conditions (MEPC 55 10/2006) but each one imply major drawbacks (high energy consumption, high costs, low performance,…). Moreover, new legislation should be set up on water quality and notably controls of ballast waters. It is absolutely necessary to go further in management of ship’s wastes and to contribute to the development of an effective ballast water and sediment treatment.

In this context, this activity consists in:
- assess tested substances efficiency against selected bacteria, phyto- and zooplankton,
- determine the most viable active substance(s) for ballast water treatment considering onboard use requirements, environmental and economical aspects,
- design “easy-to-use-at-reasonable-cost” systems and processes to use the selected active substance(s) aboard ships (or ashore) and for demonstration and
- issue recommendations for treatment methods approval considering the forthcoming IMO criteria and to help port authorities regarding control activities and to prevent from ecological impacts through harmful aquatic organisms in ballast water.

This will contribute to help ports to ensure a better protection of environment (and lower risks) and improve ballast treatment techniques (efficiency, environmental risk, cost-effectiveness).

The research activity on “aluminium pollution related to the protection of ports (quay) infrastructures” aims to contribute to manage, combat and mitigate what could be (the WP will fix it) one of the main potential environmental hazards (aluminium pollution) related to port operations. Ports steel infrastructures are generally protected by sacrificial anodes usually in aluminium which dissolved in seawater. Aluminium is not recognized as a toxic substance, and acts as an indicating parameter that can be exceeded…. According to various researchers, the toxicity of aluminium for the brain cannot be denied. “There is a lack of information on the subject ... We do not have scientific bases proving the toxicity of this metal” (W.H.O secretary, 1997). Ports need to be given realistic information regarding the toxicity of aluminium, to know if aluminium can enter the food chain and if concentrations are dangerous or not for human health. This is of the utmost importance to ensure optimal prevention of accident on human health.

In this context, this activity will consist in:
- bring knowledge on pollution generated by the use of sacrificial anodes: quantity of pollutants, environmental impact (ecotoxicological tests), toxicity for human being and
- create a scientific database on toxicity of harbour sea water aluminium and develop a tool to help ports to choose optimal solutions for the protection of infrastructures.

Innovation is firstly to bring knowledge on a sensitive topic (considering its potential impacts) on which no scientific information is available, and secondly, to propose a tool to help port managers to make their choice for the protection of ports infrastructures, considering the efficiency, the safety, the risks on environment and the cost-effectiveness of existing solutions, but also their constraints in terms of installation, operation and maintenance. Environmental risk assessment, possible solutions and tools will help ports with respect to the environmental legislations. This will contribute to help ports to integrate the environmental aspect in their choice and strategy. This WP could imply legislative evolutions.

WP2.2 partners are University of Caen (leader), VTT, TLA, CETMEF, Ifremer, FIMR, ports of Le Havre and Dublin. The leader will get the help of Pr Lei-Chou (Université Libre de Bruxelles) for expertise and validation of scientific issues.

Leader Biowind

Quantifying/reducing the air pollution emanating from European port business is directly driven by national, European or world regulations applied to port air quality, within the scope of the European Directives on ambient air quality assessment and management, on the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) control and the MARPOL convention’s Annex VI.

Combustion gas exhausts from ship machinery and straddle carriers, terminal traffic (VC, trucks), petroleum product transfer (storage and loading operations at terminals), pilots and tugging operations, and auxiliary generators on vessels at berth generate the main pollution release. The main pollutants are VOCs (contributing to ground-level ozone harmful to health and to the environment), sulphur compounds, NOx (Nitrogen Oxides, ozone precursor significantly contributing to smog) and ultrafine particles (toxic air contaminants including diesel exhaust soot). Solutions exist but generally imply cost or efficiency issues, and innovative solutions are still required to allow to strongly reduce pollution at low cost.

WP 2.3 aims to improve the management of air quality in ports and the environmental-friendliness of different port operations. Within this scope, an innovative system based on photocatalysis will be developed for treatment of VOCs, and sulphur compounds generated by ports operations. Furthermore, the approach will consider NOx and soot pollutant (bibliography, on site tests) to know if the innovative solution could be globally exploited for treating the pollutants affecting air quality in ports.

Photocatalysis attracted since 15 years a great and exponentially growing interest as a clean technology for air treatment, ranked as one of the main high-potential emerging technology. Major advantages of this technology are: high efficiency, low costs for set up, low energy-consumption, few maintenance, numerous possibilities of use, easy to adapt to new situations due to a high flexibility, easily transportable, and financially acceptable.

The demonstration organised in the port of Dunkirk by equipping a barge delivering fuel will state on the level of reduction of VOCs and sulphur pollutions., Principally due to the fact that all the areas of the barge delivering fuel have to be considered as ATEX (EXplosive ATmosphere) zone, the installation of the equipment implies strong requirements on the equipment and an approval for installation. In this scope, a dedicated process has been set up and is currently running, in consistency with the initial planning. It is estimated that the installation will get the required permits by month 32 (December 2008) to respect the planning in the DoW and allow sufficient time for installation and test (for completion in month 35 i.e. March 2009).

Tests will also be performed on SOx, NOx and PM with exhaust gases from an inland ship engine. They will not require any approval for installing and operating the equipment (except conditions given by CFT). Global environmental benefits in European harbours will be estimated from demonstration and tests results. In first approach, such a technology should allow to reduce by 95% the VOC emissions and by 80% the sulphur, NOx and soot pollutants.

WP2.3 proposes to give solutions and recommendations to ports managers, operators and ships owners to improve port air quality and thus facilitate environmentally efficient management of ports, in terms of noxiousness for human being and toxicity for air. The innovative system based on photocatalysis will definitely be a way for the port community / users to decrease impacts of their activity on air quality, with high efficiency and at low cost. Detailed technical and operational recommendations including cost-benefit considerations will be provided how this system could be applied in any port. It will contribute to help ports to significantly decrease the impacts of port operations on the human health (neighbourhood, port workers and users) and their contribution to the regional air pollution (all the most sensitive when ports are near city areas).

WP2.3 partners are Biowind (leader), ULP, TLA, VTT, CFT and the port of Le Havre.

Leader VTT

In order to reduce the amount of unhappy even irritated residents living near port areas, the key issue is to minimize the annoyance of port noise. Many annoying sound sources can give results below the regulatory values but still disturb the nearby residents.

As a result of the project new annoyance metrics for sources distinctive to ports will be developed using psychoacoustic descriptors and listening tests.

The most significant problem related to environmental noise evaluation is managing the uncertainties due to weather. A prediction model will be developed taking into account the weather conditions.

Apart from creating sound attenuation maps the ports will obtain annoyance maps which will enable ports to reduce the annoyance of the port to nearby residential areas at varying weather conditions and reduce the amount of complaints.

The results of the project will enable development of cost-efficient innovative technical measures to minimise the emissions. The noise control measures will be specifically targeted to the most annoying sources of noise in order to minimize their annoyance and impact on the environments.

WP2.4 partners are VTT (leader), FMI, and ports of Turku and Dublin.

Sub-Project Objectives

Ports are extremely heterogeneous systems composed from a wide variety of industries directly dealing with ship operations, others providing support services and also some using the function of ports as transport nodes to manufacture their goods within the port area. Additionally we have community administrations and governmental and regional administrational services such as customs, immigration and health services. Thus ports are truly complex systems requiring the involvement of quite distinct special experts but expertise in certain domains is not sufficient to manage communication and co-operation across border-specific disciplines.

A way must be found to integrate all these experts and to create a common platform of understanding and to allocate project activities in a holistic and consistent way. Matching this challenging objective shall not become restricted to the project itself but must serve the ports as a useful tool to manage their development beyond the project.

The work package "Port Processes" (WP 3.1) will provide the architecture(s) and process descriptions to make the complex port structure transparent and in a next step to provide software tool(s) to support specified operations.

It is only logically to base the approach of WP 3.2 "Risk Management Framework" on the process "map" of WP 3.1 and hence develop an approach and tools for ports to not only increase safety and security of operations but also elucidate this to the non-experts.

Sub-Project Structure

In order to achieve the stated objectives and scopes, the Sub-Project is structured in two different Work-Packages:

WP 3.1: Port Processes

WP 3.2: Risk Management Framework

The Subproject Port Organisation is lead by the Port of Gijón (PAG).

Leader Marintek

The efficiency of port operations depends heavily on the quality and timeliness of the information exchanged. A further increase of efficiency can only be accomplished by means of optimised automated processes supported by complex IT solutions. In this context interoperability between processes and interconnectivity between ICT systems plays an important role.

Requirements on interoperability between partners increase tremendously, making interoperability solutions between partners more and more intricate, costly and error-prone. On the other hand, state of the art procedures for specification, implementation and testing of such solutions are still based on a data-centred view on interoperability than on a process view.

WP 3.1 aims at providing the methodology and necessary tools to create interoperability solutions between stakeholders in ports. Application of a structured procedure for specification, implementation and testing makes development of interoperability solutions calculable thus minimising project costs and risks.

One of the main objectives of this WP includes capturing and visualising all important relevant port and terminal processes with related stakeholders. A set of standard business cases will be defined as templates for the implementation of interoperability solution. ICT requirements and standards are also concerned that all analysis are in their conformity.

The procedures and tools developed within this work package facilitate rapid implementation of interoperability solutions with high quality between partners within ports. The use of a Service Oriented Architecture allows the application of this methodology within arbitrary system architectures.

Whereas the main focus of this work package lies on the implementation of interoperability solutions, the process-centred approach is also suitable for interoperability projects on an organisational level.

WP 3.1 partners are Marintek (leader), NundP, ISSUS/TUHH, DPC, PAG, Tredit, ThPA, ISDEFE.

This WP aims at

  • Including all the stakeholders in the risk assessment framework, not only the port entities but also the port users and customers e.g. transportation companies, logistic operators, etc.
  • Integrating the port protection plans with local regional, national and European plans.
  • Having a flexible protection plan able to include all the dynamic changes of the port operations and regulations.
  • Developing an integrated methodology covering safety so as to deliver a tool/methodology to meet the needs of ports now and in the future.

In order to achieve the objectives the following activities, in accordance with Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) procedures are developed:

Hazard Identification (task 3.2.1) including the definition / categorisation of the hazards / risks, map of the generic hazards, related to the generic port processes and actors, consequence analysis.

Risk Assessment (task 3.2.2) including the definition of a comprehensive matrix of exposures and indexes, the specification of the hazard risk scenarios which requires very detailed process knowledge only available at the operational site, a model to qualify (nature of potential danger/risk) and quantify (according to common risk calculations) risks, an umbrella model to determine comprehensive risks from individual process risks and tools for threat identification and vulnerability analysis, as far as the security items are concerned:

Risk Management (task 3.2.3) including a catalogue of suggested control options/ hazard control strategies, the application of the software tool Risk Monitoring Tool (RMT) and the evaluation of the residual risk. Recommendations for integration and implementation (task 3.2.4) including the platform of software tools translating the umbrella model for the development of risk scenarios and a case study suggested by the port operators.

The main results are a proven risk assessment for ports allowing standardisation, a proven control options to mitigate the hazards (best practices).

WP 3.2 partners are DAPP (leader), ISSUS/TUHH, IST, JRC, ISDEFE, APL, DPC, PAG.

Leader Areva TA